Anne Crone

And all the other bits!

As we work closely with archaeological planners and advisors, particularly the English Heritage Greater London Archaeological Advisors in London, the scope of all of our fieldwork and post-excavation strategies follow nationally agreed strategies, we have a really structured process that guides us through the excavation and analysis works. So my specialist osteological analysis and reporting will tie in to specific research questions generated for each site. On large projects like our post-medieval cemetery excavation in Bethnal Green, I will also engage with other specialists, particularly our small finds specialist, Helen MacQuarrie, who will be looking at the coins, dress accessories such as hair combs and buttons that we found with the burials, and our dendrochronologist Anne Crone, who

An adult skull which we found with a coin in each eye orbit for the symbolic payment for transport into the afterlife. Copyright AOC Archaeology

Variation in coffin decoration from post-medieval burials excavated from Bethnal Green, London. Copyright AOC Archaeology

has been working to identifying the species that were used for the manufacture of wooden gravemarkers, which we also found at the site. Anne is also blogging about her day today – worth having a look. And I’ve uploaded a picture of one particularly interesting burial we found with a coin placed in each eye orbit as a symbolic payment for transport into the afterlife.

As an osteologist, I also look into the variation in funerary practices that were adopted in the past. The Bethnal Green burials were interred in wooden coffins, mostly covered with an outer textile that tends not to survive very well. The textile was held in place by upholstery pins and the coffin makers placed the pins in a range of patterns to add a bit of variation to the design of the coffin. Additional metal decorations were added, including angels and urns with flowers as well as sun-rays and rosettes. It’s interesting to see if the construction and decoration of the coffin varied, either between the sexes or by age or showed any variation across different sites.  So after recording each skeleton, I’ll catalogue the coffin size and decoration from site records and photographs and hopefully quantify the changes. You can see the variation in the coffin decorations in the site photo and this is generating a mass of data that will hopefully provide some really interesting results. Some of the burials had surviving coffin plates, which tell us the name and date of death of the individual. We can try and identify these individuals in the surviving parish records such as birth, marriage and death records, the census records, parish rate books and in wills, to try and broaden what we know about their lives. At the end of the analysis, we will bring together all of the research and evidence in a site-specific monograph, so the results will be fully accessible in the public domain together with the archived finds, which will be deposited at the LAARC.

Waterlogged Day, Waterlogged Wood….

My name is Anne Crone and I am a post-excavation project manager at AOC Archaeology Group, working in their Loanhead office in Scotland. I am currently managing a number of large post-excavation projects, the most important of which is the Cults Landscape Project – important to me because I also carried out the fieldwork in partnership with my colleague, Graeme Cavers, and because it has enabled me to ‘indulge’ many of my research interests, in crannogs, waterlogged wood and dendrochronology.

crannog

The Cults Loch crannog under excavation

 

The fieldwork project has involved the excavation of a number of sites in and around Cults Loch, a small kettlehole loch at Castle Kennedy, near Stranraer in south-west Scotland. The project arose out of the initiative of the Scottish Wetland Archaeology Programme, the aim of which was to more fully integrate wetland archaeology into more mainstream ‘dryland’ archaeology. So we selected a landscape in which the archaeological sites appear to cluster around the loch and within which there were two crannogs – these are man-made islands found only in Scotland and Ireland and which are repositories of all sorts of waterlogged organic goodies!  We have excavated one of the crannogs which sits on a little man-made promontory jutting out into the loch, the promontory fort that lies on the other side of the loch, overlooking the crannog, and one of the palisaded enclosures that lies on the grassland around the loch.

And now we are halfway through the post-excavation programme.  We know that this is a later prehistoric landscape because we have 1st millennium BC radiocarbon dates from the promontory fort and crannog. But more exciting – I have been able to dendro-date some of the oak timbers from the crannog and we now know that most of the building activity took place in the 2nd and 3rd decades of the 5th century BC, and that there was refurbishment of the causeway in 193 BC – for me these more specific dates bring the occupants more clearly into focus…

Today – well, it started off with a 3 mile walk to work – usually a great start when I can think through my schedule for the day – but today the heavens opened and I was soaked by the time I arrived at the office! After drying out I settled down at my desk to read the report on the soil micromorphology from the crannog which my colleague Lynne Roy has just finished. As project manager I need to edit and check each report before it is sent out to the client, in this case Historic Scotland, but as the archaeologist I also want to read it for the insights it will give me into the taphonomy of the deposits on the crannog. And it is really fascinating! We found large patches of laminated plant litter, interspersed with gravel and sand layers which we interpreted as floor coverings that had been repeatedly renewed. Lynne’s analysis has revealed that the occupants probably cleaned away as much as possible of the dirty floor coverings before scattering over a sand and gravel subfloor and then laying down fresh plant litter. She can tell which surfaces were exposed for a length of time while others were covered almost immediately. And her work on the hearth debris indicates that peat turves were probably the main form of fuel on the site.

recording_timbers

Recording timbers in the warehouse

 

Like many archaeologists the majority of my time is spent at my desk, writing reports, editing reports, filling in/updating spreadsheets, and dealing with emails. So it is a pleasure to be able to don my lab coat and spend some time in our warehouse handling waterlogged wood. I am currently writing the report on the structural timbers from the crannog. The majority of the timbers were undressed logs or roundwood stakes, mostly of alder and oak, so most of the recording and sampling was done on the crannog. Samples for dendro and species identification were brought back to the lab but we only brought back complete timbers which displayed interesting carpentry details and were worthy of conservation. I have been completing the recording of these timbers and deciding which ones should be illustrated for the final report. There are some interesting timbers in the assemblage –large horizontal timbers with square mortises, presumably to take vertical posts, but what is the function of the horizontal timbers which have very narrow notches cut diagonally across them? Next week I will be off to the library to look for comparanda and to find explanations for some of the more unusual aspects of the assemblage

Read more about Cults Loch here