Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

Fort Vancouver and Archaeologists-In-Training

It’s hot and dry today in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Students attending the Public Archaeology field school at the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site have just passed the halfway point of their Public Archaeology Field School. Since I am not actively doing archaeology on this Day of Archaeology this year, I thought it would be a great time to highlight the experiences of students in the field.

This area has been the focus of human occupation for a very long time. First Nations peoples used the resources of what is now the Columbia River. Fort Vancouver was established by the Hudson Bay Company as its headquarters after moving inland from Astoria in the early part of the 19th century. The US Army arrived mid-19th century and occupied the site until 2012. During World War I, a spruce mill provided wood for the war effort. In the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps had dormitories on the site. During World War II, the Kaiser Shipyards were on the site.

This year, the students are working at two different dig sites and, because this field school is comprehensive, there is also a group learning how to do site surveys, shovel probes, and mapping, and another group

Site of flag staff at Vancouver Barracks

Site of flag staff at Vancouver Barracks

working in the Old City Cemetery of Vancouver. I visited each group location and got to talk to the students about archaeology, study, and this field school.

The first site I visited is on the Vancouver Barracks Parade Ground. National Park Service archaeologists, Dr. Doug Wilson and Dr. Elizabeth Horton, have identified the location of the 1854-1879 flag staff.

When I walked to the site, two of the students were screening sediments. Two others were analyzing sediments and writing a description. They have uncovered a concentration of stones that the students think might be a path, and a post hole that may be the flag staff itself. There is charcoal in places.

I was curious to know what the students’ experiences were like. One student found that the course was more comprehensive than he expected, and anticipates the practical experience he’s getting will make him a better field archaeologist when that time comes. Another found himself dreaming of troweling, and said that seeing the artifacts in the field creates a connection with people whose voices have long been silent. Another student finds the jumble of pre-historic and historic artifacts at the same level intriguing, and is curious about why this is. Another student found a friction primer in very good condition, and she pulled it out to share.

I headed over to the Kanaka Village, the culturally diverse area where where excavations on two houses started during last summer’s field school are continuing. The students had to excavate early 20th century railroad ballast from a rail spur that serviced the spruce mill that existed on the site during World War I. When I arrived, students and volunteers were beginning to carefully excavate levels associated with the Hudson Bay Company period of occupation. A student found a clay pipe stem, which is indicative of the time period. He said he didn’t know what he was getting into with the field school, but has found it fascinating and a great introduction into archaeology as actual work. Another student was surprised at how hard the digging of the ballast was, but that she felt much stronger now. One of the volunteers, who has gone on digs with the Oregon Archaeological Society, remarked how archaeology is a field in which one could never become an expert in all areas, and that learning never, ever stops.

I joined the survey crew over lunch. They have been doing pedestrian survey and digging shovel probes in another area of the World War I spruce mill complex. They were all dirty and dusty, and happy to be in the shade. They talked about how learning about the process of archaeology in class was bolstered by the practical experience they were getting in the field. What they were finding was the connection between the past and the present, and being able to engage the public was an unexpected pleasure—particularly with kids. One student said that she, “Loved to watch the kids’ eyes light up.”

My last stop was the crew working in the Old City Cemetery of Vancouver. They were just finishing their lunch, and spared me a few minutes before getting back to work. One student has another year till graduation, and looks forward his archaeological theory class this coming year. He appreciates having the opportunity to attend a field school in a national park. The resources available, and the knowledge of the park rangers is interesting. Another student was surprised by the level of detail and documentation in archaeology, but knows that it’s necessary.

My overall impression was of excitement and enthusiasm about the work being done by all of the students. Everyone is eager to get to work, whether it’s in the field, or in school. That kind of energy is what keeps us all engaged in our work, and looking towards the future.

Fort Vancouver National Historic Site; Breaking New Ground

It’s a typical early summer day, here in the Pacific Northwest of the United States—cool, gray, and cloudy. We don’t get summer until after the Fourth of July, usually. I park my car and walk, coffee in hand, to what will be the new collections and curation building for the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. Right now it’s where we store our equipment, and where the joint Portland State University/Washington State University Public Archaeology Field School has its lab. Last summer, I was a student in that field school. This summer, I am a government contractor, doing archaeological survey work for the National Park Service on land recently acquired from the U.S. Army. It’s a short contract, only about three weeks, but it is a great time and a great opportunity.

In May, 2012, the U.S. Army relinquished the East and South Barracks areas of the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site to the U.S. National Park Service as part of the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990. The army has had a presence here since the First U.S. Artillery Regiment arrived in May, 1849. Before the army’s arrival, starting around 1824, the site was an active Hudson Bay Company fur trading outpost. Before the Hudson Bay Company’s arrival, the area was an active, seasonal location for Native Americans to take advantage of the spring salmon runs up what is now the Columbia River. The site has yielded artifacts from all of these eras, creating a picture of an area that has been used by humans for many generations.

The exciting thing is that very little archaeological work has been done in the East and South Barracks areas—ever. (more…)