Geography of Europe

A Day with Macedonian Archaeology – Overview of antiques from Dobri dol village, Karshijak, municipality of Sopishte, Skopje

“We do not dig up objects, we dig up people.”

 – Sir Mortimer Wheeler

 The need to go back to the past is process of rejuvenation of memories or their placement in time and space anew, as well as a realization and replenishment of the complete picture of a certain geographical ambient.

The seeker directs his interest of a certain space towards its deeper perception and befriending forgotten experiences, discovering, stone by stone, that which his forefathers before him have sawn.

For each individual, the mounting of Vodno, as any other mountain, is a goal to reach. To that end, there is a possibility to walk the marked mountain road, others have walked before you, or to boldly take the unmarked road full of various challenges and obstacles.

Climbing up the steep eastern slopes of Vodno, one can reminisce of the old road stretching from the great Stone Bridge on the river Vardar to the south towards Kisela Voda village. There it split in two directions, one continuing south-east (villages of Taor and Zelenikovo), whereas the other turning more to the south towards the gentle hills to the east and south-east of Vodno (villages of Soptishte, Rakotinci, Dobri dol and further down to Pelagonia). (Evans 1885, 98; Hadzi-Vasiljevic 1930, 24-25; Shkricanic 1974, 80.)

This geographical area was known as Karshijak or “on the other side”, “across the river Vardar or opposite Vardar” (Hadzi-Vasiljevic 1930, 33). Once road passes by Markovo Kruvche, or medieval Chrnche, one would arrive at the old quarry where blue limestone (limestone deposits from the third Mesozoic shallow sea dating around 150 million years ago) was excavated and used to tile the streets in the center of old Skopje (Radovanivic 1937, 75; Trifunovski 1958, 84; Herak 1973, 314-317). Remnants from that time can be found even today, a time when the noise, dust, smoke and clatter of the craftsmenwere companions to every weary traveler. Most probably, Sir John Arthur walked this same road while exploring the Roman remnants in this region.

Next are the village of Sopishte, and then the village of Rakotinci, both spread over the long valleys and dry trenches shaped by the long hand of the wild spring and summer rain.

The village of Dobri dol is located south of Skopje, at a distance of around 10 km from the city center. It is situated in a valley shaped as a horseshoe in the southern slopes of Vodno, ridged by the two small rivers, Krushka and Rakotinski Dol (made up of Buturec and Cimkoec springs) that contributed to the fertility of the soil and the ease of its processing, and a little higher up, on the neogene terraces, the soil is dry, sandy and perfect for growing Dobridol grapes. It is protected from the cold north winds, but through the valley of the river Markova reka, open to the warm south wind (South-Razvigor breeze or Lodos) (Hadzi-Vasiljevic 1930, 18; Trifunovski 1958, 15, 130).

In the area surrounding the village Dobri Dol the following toponyms can be found: Preku dol, Preku rit, Ciganski grobishta, Gola Rudina, Kocho padina, Pitoma rupa, Po rogoi chuki, Pargoi chuki, Kushica, Gorni Zabel, Dolni Zabel, Perkoec, Dushkov dol, Opal, Bel Krst. Mankoec, Kojdui rupi, Grashishta, Crna shuma i Drmos (Skok 1936, 104-105; Trifunoski 1958, 138).

fig. 1 Topographic map from the vilage of Dobri Dol

Preserved testaments of the first settlements dating from the early Stone Age can be found in the area surrounding the nearby villages of Rakotinci and Govrlevo. Two settlements were located to the east of Dobri Dol, in the terraces of the Orlovica hill and above the two small river-streams flowing from Dobri dol and the neighboring Rakotinci, the first one dating from the early Stone Age and the second one form the Copper Age, Orlovica 1 and 2 (Bilbija 1996, 380; Mitrevski 2013, 139; 32, 155)

In the middle reaches of Markova Reka, near the village of Sushica (Kolishtrkovska-Nasteva and Videski 1996, 42), deep in the sandy shore, the traces of Mycenae pioneers who most likely were in search of rivers rich in gold, lie hidden.

Fragmented (Mycenae) vessels belonging to the Bronze Age of the Vardar Valley are found in Govrlevo (according to Bilbija 2012; Mitrevski 2013, 184), west of Dobri Dol.

Settlements and fortified stations, small forts and shelters have been woven into the landscape since Ancient times and the Middle Ages. Old cemeteries, stone markers, stelas and crosses. Slanted or excavated. Lonely or attached, one can find them on the hills and fields. Christian or Muslim religious temples tower over the red tile rooftops of the village houses. But, also holy and healing springs and creeks that bring peace and tranquility to the weary travelers and eternal seekers under the deep shadows of the centennial trees and the on road resting places reminiscing of times past.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN DOBRO DOL VILLAGE

  1. Archeological site Krushka,

is situated in the vicinity of Krushka spring (Kushica) (Vuchkovich-Todorovich 1958, 289; Jovanova 1996, 370), 500 meters north-west of the village church St. Spas. A double tomb dating from the late Antique was found in the 50’s of the last century and six secondarily used stelae intended for the double tomb construction inscribed in Latin letters, and one inscribed in combined Latin and Ancient Greek. Bricks were used for the floor of the tombs. Bricks with larger dimensions, were a little elevated than the rest were set as the headrest.

Fig. 3 Arch. loc. Krushka-Kushica

Burial gifts were found in both chambers:  a coin (Constantine), gilded crossbow fibulas, a golden earring, golden ring, glass vessels- vials and two ceramic vessels (Vuchkovich-Todorovich 1958, 295-296).

The stelas most probably belonged to high class decedents who held lands in the horseshoe-shaped valley, but served their professional and life course in the administrative, religious and transit center in the province of Upper Moesia, in Skupi. They originate from the period at the end of the 1st to the beginning of the 3rd century (Vuchkovich-Todorovich 1958, 290-295, Dragojevich-Josifovska 1982, 68-69, 81-82, 86, 99, 118; Petkovski 2013, 182, 197, 198, 209, 213).

The following names are mentioned:

– Decedent (soldier in the Flavian cavalry-ala) Vanno, Iulius Vanno Missicius and the dedicator – establisher Flavius Antiocus,

– Decedent (centurion veteran) Antonius and the establisher, free slave Simphorus,

– Decedent Drutie Mestulae and the dedicator Maema Dioscuridi,

– Decedent (veteran of the VII legion Claudia Pia Fidelis), Publius Caetennius Clemens and the establisher, free slave  Simphorus and heir Publius Caetennius Felicianus,

– Decedent Publius Aelius Posidonianus and the establisher Antonia Saturnina,

– Decedents (sons, praetorian soldiers Caio Valerio Pudinti veteran and Caio Iulio Celeri, the son-in-law, who was Augustales (priest of the royal cult in Skupi) Caio Valerio Maximo and the establisher mother Iulia Victorina (Vuchkovich-Todorovich 1958, 290-295, Dragojevich-Josifovska 1982, 68-69, 81-82, 86, 99, 118).

On this very spot, atKushica near the high poplars, ceramic pipes – tubules most probably belonging to an ancient water supply system were excavated while repairing and constructing a new water supply system for the village, thus this place got the name Old Spring.

 

  1. Archeological site Grmadi

is believed to be the settlement or one of the village estates belonging to some of the abovementioned persons located at a distance of around 500 meters from the double late-antique tomb. While reconnoitering this are numerous rocks and tegulae were found, as well as house foundations that were probably ripped out in the process of ploughing the fields. (Vuchkovich-Todorovich 1958, 295)

Fig. 4 Arch. loc. Grmadi

 

  1. Archeological site Smilanci,

situated around 1.2 kilometers to the south-east of the village, on the slopes of a flattened plateau and above a deep valley and an aqueous spring scattered stones and pieces of Corinth tegulae can be found. Maybe this was also the location of a village estate from the Roman period.

Fig. 5 Arch. loc. Smilanci and Bel Krst

  1. Archeological site Bel Krst (White Cross),

a gentle hill at a distance of less than one kilometer to the south-east from the center of the village. On the top of the hill, a wide ditch was dug where most likely a roughly caved stone block was set with a recipient in the middle. Nearby the stone block, there is a stone cross inscribed in Old Slavonic letters.

 Fig. 6 Arch. loc. Bel Krst

FINAL CONCLUSIONS

 

The little horseshoe-shaped valley which is the resting place of Dobri Dol village is also a meeting point for several communication routes, connecting the Skopje region to the south and vice verse. The good and fertile soil and the closeness of the forests and higher pastures have provided conditions for a secure and good life for the population inhabiting this area in different time periods.

The presence of quality drinking water gushing from the several watery springs (a few of which are completely dried out today) as well as the favorable and mila climate were a precondition for forming the first settlements ever since the early Stone Age.

This short review of the few archeological points in the village and its vicinity is merely a starting point for further, more scrutinized and comprehensive research into the archeological past of the village of Dobri Dol.

 

This text was finished on the day of † Venerable Martyr Fevronija;

Venerable Dionisiy Kosturski, 2014

By Igor Tolevski – igor.tolevski@gmail.com

A day in the life of an Irish Managing Director / Archaeologist

My name is Colm Moloney and I am the Managing Director of Headland Archaeology (Ireland) Ltd. We are one of the larger commercial archaeological companies operating in Ireland.

 

The office of Headland Archaeology (Ireland) Ltd on Little Island in County Cork

In my working life Fridays tend to be meeting heavy but in July that all changes as the holiday season hits. This Friday (Day of Archaeology) I have a fine balance of some interesting archaeology and quite a lot of commercial activity. Here it is warts n’ all!

 

I started my day off at 8am in the office in Little island, County Cork preparing a news article for Seanda, the annual archaeology magazine of the Irish National Roads Authority. This summarises a group of 6 corn drying kilns from an amazing Early Christian site in County Tipperary.

 

At 10am I met with the Business Support Manager to have a look at the mail and discuss the forthcoming week and programming of work. Great news – we won tenders for three fieldwork projects!

 

Lunch is postponed as the archive for a site I will be writing up over the next year arrives at the office and needs to be stored away carefully. One box contains a complete and intact prehistoric pot. The most amazing things go through this office!

 

A complete and intact Bronze Age pot delivered to the office today

Next it was straight into an end of month financial review with the accountant and other directors. This involves checking that we have hit our financial targets for the month and then going through our forecasting for finance for the next 12 months. Once the forecasting is complete we meet with the sales team to discuss targets and what work we need to get in to keep the business going steady. While this may seem mundane and boring it is by far the most important part of my job particularly in the midst of a recession.

 

After lunch is spent working on the Bronze Age chapter for a monograph that we are writing on the archaeology of the N7 Nenagh to Limerick Road scheme for the National Roads Authority. Today I was producing a distribution map of Bronze Age settlements between Limerick city and Nenagh in County Tipperary – I love this part of my job!

 

This afternoon I have a strategy meeting for our new business – Know Thy Place Ltd. We started this in response to the recession and it is really starting to gather momentum. We are now looking at pushing the service in the USA and todays meeting will focus on how best to achieve this.  I have to admit this is all very exciting and it is great to be doing something positive to fight the recession.

 

My final tasks of the day involve reviewing the illustrations for an article I have written for the Tipperary County Journal with our Graphics Manager and making a start on a blog post for Know Thy Place on a family of troglodytes who lived in my home town of Midleton, County Cork during the early medieval period.

 

That was my day, I hope you enjoyed it!

The Lion Tower and other walls, Galway, Ireland

For the first time in the history of the company, Moore Group’s team are not nursing hangovers this morning.

By that I don’t mean that it’s a daily occurrence. No. Today is the day after Ladies Day at the Galway Races. Traditionally we’d take the Thursday off to gamble, carouse and revel, dress in our finery and consume copious bottles of champagne, while we watched the fleets of helicopters land and deposit the more affluent racegoers (back when times were good there would be over 300 helicopters a day flying into the Galway Races). And today has traditionally been our recovery day.

We gave the Races our thirties but like the tycoons, we stayed away this year…

Galway Races

The Galway Races From Samuca’s Photostream

The West of Ireland generally closes down for this week of the year and the week coincides with the ‘builders’ holidays (It’s always struck me as odd that the rest of the Country and Non-Ireland continue as normal), so normally we close down for the Thursday and Friday.

But this year, we’re working like everyone else. Unfortunately the crèche isn’t, so my day of archaeology started with toddler transport and grandparent delivery (ie.. delivery of child to said grandparents – he gets to go the races today!). Fortified now with bacon and coffee, I’m back in my home office and preparing to complete a monitoring report. In recent months we’ve downsized and the remaining 4 Moore’s are working ‘in the cloud’. Three have taken the week as holidays and are relaxing at their respective destinations, save Billy, who, presumably, is busy in his home office writing up the notes from his weeks monitoring in Kells, Co. Meath and putting the final touches to an archaeological assessment of a proposed gas pipeline in Limerick.

The main archaeological feature I’ll be writing about in my report today is a section of the medieval bastion of Galway City which was exposed during excavation works for a gas pipeline in the middle of the city as well as the foundation to an earlier defensive tower called the Lion Tower. The bastion wall was found near the centre of Eglinton Street, between Tower House and Cube or Carbon nightclub (not sure which – they didn’t spell it with an initial K, though I’m sure they were tempted). The adjacent Lion Tower (and if there are Galway peeps reading – it is the Lion Tower and not the Lions Tower) foundation was found roughly 2m to the south east of the wall and consisted of a rubble foundation with an upper course of stone that appeared to be laid in an arc. We interpreted this as representing the circular base of the Lion Tower as depicted on the 1651 Pictorial map of Galway, although we had a very narrow area to work in and all the work was done in the evening with limited light.

The Lion Tower/City Bastion as it was in the 30’s (we encountered the foundations in the roadway this side of the second car and the tower foundation opposite the telephone box)

The bastion wall was in good condition and constituted a substantial foundation measuring approximately 2.6m in width built of roughly hewn limestone rubble blocks bonded with lime mortar. Preliminary work on either side of the wall exposed a fair face with a slight batter along the north west facing elevation, the south east face was more ragged. This section of the polygonal bastion was built around the earlier Lion Tower in 1646.

I normally spend the bulk of my time in the office, dealing with clients and potential clients, preparing prices and tenders, accounts and all that dull stuff. The rest of my time is in the field, monitoring pipelines or other construction related activity, site inspections or site visits for assessments of proposed developments, the occasional excavation (not too many of those around these days), and fieldwalking. My deep fear of animals of any description is a definite disadvantage, but I  persevere – sheep – I’m desperately frightened of sheep, and dolphins.

Twenty years ago, I stumbled into archaeology, 80’s Ireland presented precious little opportunities but an opportunity to work on an excavation came up after University and I was hooked. Of course, I’ve stumbled a few more times since.  Finding things like the bastion makes up for those dull days, as do the days when you find yourself up the top of a mountain, in driving rain, walking through deep bog up to your ankles.

In the early 1960s the late Prof G.A.Hayes-McCoy became a spokesperson for the preservation of the  landmark “Lion Tower” described and pictured above (actually a section of the bastion). The ultimate failure of that campaign was a great disappointment to him and he later said that Ireland was forgetful about its past and that “we don’t bother to find out about it or to maintain our ancient heritage”, and, of Galway; “take my own city of Galway, it is now more prosperous than it was, but it is no longer distinctive. I do not believe that it is essential for progress that we should lose our heritage”.

The Day of Archaeology and other initiatives can help in curing that forgetfulness. Well done to all involved – a fantastic initiative, let’s do it again…