Iron mining

Roman tapped iron-smelting slag

Roman tapped iron-smelting slag. The field of view is approximately 2.5mm. The horizontal line across the centre is the chilled margin of an individual flow lobe.

Following the morning’s excitement of a delivery of new material, it is back to the interpretation of a large dataset collected on the SEM last week. Some of the collections of archaeometallurgical residues that get examined require detailed analysis to reveal their secrets. Various techniques are used to analyse for chemical composition, mineralogy and microstructure. One of the most commonly used tools is the analytical scanning electron microscope.  The analytical SEM allows chemical microanalysis from precise locations in a sample.

From this information the analyses can be converted into chemical formulae, allowing the detailed mineralogy can be established. Analysis of regions of slag also allows the overall chemical composition of the slag determined.Processing of the microanalyses is time-consuming

Spreadsheet of chemical data

Processing microanalytical data, to convert the microanalyses into mineral formulae.

In this example, the chemistry of the slag clearly indicates that the smelters were using iron ore from the Forest of Dean. This ore is generally very pure and produces a slag with a rather simple mineralogy. Here, however, the slag has reacted with the ash of the charcoal fuel, levels of calcium and potassium have been increased, and additional phases formed.

Detail of Roman iron smelting slag

Detail of Roman tapped iron-smelting slag. Field of view is approximately 0.17mm. The image shows the minerals wustite (FeO, white), fayalite (Fe2SiO4, pale grey), kirchsteinite (FeCaSiO4, mid grey) and leucite (KAlSi2O6, dark grey).

So, analysis has, in this instance, clarified not only where the ore was mined, but also provided some subtle indicators that may help with understanding the details of the smelting technique employed.

There are, however, lots more numbers to crunch before the full significance of the material can be understood…