river Vardar

A Day with Macedonian Archaeology – Overview of antiques from Dobri dol village, Karshijak, municipality of Sopishte, Skopje

“We do not dig up objects, we dig up people.”

 – Sir Mortimer Wheeler

 The need to go back to the past is process of rejuvenation of memories or their placement in time and space anew, as well as a realization and replenishment of the complete picture of a certain geographical ambient.

The seeker directs his interest of a certain space towards its deeper perception and befriending forgotten experiences, discovering, stone by stone, that which his forefathers before him have sawn.

For each individual, the mounting of Vodno, as any other mountain, is a goal to reach. To that end, there is a possibility to walk the marked mountain road, others have walked before you, or to boldly take the unmarked road full of various challenges and obstacles.

Climbing up the steep eastern slopes of Vodno, one can reminisce of the old road stretching from the great Stone Bridge on the river Vardar to the south towards Kisela Voda village. There it split in two directions, one continuing south-east (villages of Taor and Zelenikovo), whereas the other turning more to the south towards the gentle hills to the east and south-east of Vodno (villages of Soptishte, Rakotinci, Dobri dol and further down to Pelagonia). (Evans 1885, 98; Hadzi-Vasiljevic 1930, 24-25; Shkricanic 1974, 80.)

This geographical area was known as Karshijak or “on the other side”, “across the river Vardar or opposite Vardar” (Hadzi-Vasiljevic 1930, 33). Once road passes by Markovo Kruvche, or medieval Chrnche, one would arrive at the old quarry where blue limestone (limestone deposits from the third Mesozoic shallow sea dating around 150 million years ago) was excavated and used to tile the streets in the center of old Skopje (Radovanivic 1937, 75; Trifunovski 1958, 84; Herak 1973, 314-317). Remnants from that time can be found even today, a time when the noise, dust, smoke and clatter of the craftsmenwere companions to every weary traveler. Most probably, Sir John Arthur walked this same road while exploring the Roman remnants in this region.

Next are the village of Sopishte, and then the village of Rakotinci, both spread over the long valleys and dry trenches shaped by the long hand of the wild spring and summer rain.

The village of Dobri dol is located south of Skopje, at a distance of around 10 km from the city center. It is situated in a valley shaped as a horseshoe in the southern slopes of Vodno, ridged by the two small rivers, Krushka and Rakotinski Dol (made up of Buturec and Cimkoec springs) that contributed to the fertility of the soil and the ease of its processing, and a little higher up, on the neogene terraces, the soil is dry, sandy and perfect for growing Dobridol grapes. It is protected from the cold north winds, but through the valley of the river Markova reka, open to the warm south wind (South-Razvigor breeze or Lodos) (Hadzi-Vasiljevic 1930, 18; Trifunovski 1958, 15, 130).

In the area surrounding the village Dobri Dol the following toponyms can be found: Preku dol, Preku rit, Ciganski grobishta, Gola Rudina, Kocho padina, Pitoma rupa, Po rogoi chuki, Pargoi chuki, Kushica, Gorni Zabel, Dolni Zabel, Perkoec, Dushkov dol, Opal, Bel Krst. Mankoec, Kojdui rupi, Grashishta, Crna shuma i Drmos (Skok 1936, 104-105; Trifunoski 1958, 138).

fig. 1 Topographic map from the vilage of Dobri Dol

Preserved testaments of the first settlements dating from the early Stone Age can be found in the area surrounding the nearby villages of Rakotinci and Govrlevo. Two settlements were located to the east of Dobri Dol, in the terraces of the Orlovica hill and above the two small river-streams flowing from Dobri dol and the neighboring Rakotinci, the first one dating from the early Stone Age and the second one form the Copper Age, Orlovica 1 and 2 (Bilbija 1996, 380; Mitrevski 2013, 139; 32, 155)

In the middle reaches of Markova Reka, near the village of Sushica (Kolishtrkovska-Nasteva and Videski 1996, 42), deep in the sandy shore, the traces of Mycenae pioneers who most likely were in search of rivers rich in gold, lie hidden.

Fragmented (Mycenae) vessels belonging to the Bronze Age of the Vardar Valley are found in Govrlevo (according to Bilbija 2012; Mitrevski 2013, 184), west of Dobri Dol.

Settlements and fortified stations, small forts and shelters have been woven into the landscape since Ancient times and the Middle Ages. Old cemeteries, stone markers, stelas and crosses. Slanted or excavated. Lonely or attached, one can find them on the hills and fields. Christian or Muslim religious temples tower over the red tile rooftops of the village houses. But, also holy and healing springs and creeks that bring peace and tranquility to the weary travelers and eternal seekers under the deep shadows of the centennial trees and the on road resting places reminiscing of times past.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN DOBRO DOL VILLAGE

  1. Archeological site Krushka,

is situated in the vicinity of Krushka spring (Kushica) (Vuchkovich-Todorovich 1958, 289; Jovanova 1996, 370), 500 meters north-west of the village church St. Spas. A double tomb dating from the late Antique was found in the 50’s of the last century and six secondarily used stelae intended for the double tomb construction inscribed in Latin letters, and one inscribed in combined Latin and Ancient Greek. Bricks were used for the floor of the tombs. Bricks with larger dimensions, were a little elevated than the rest were set as the headrest.

Fig. 3 Arch. loc. Krushka-Kushica

Burial gifts were found in both chambers:  a coin (Constantine), gilded crossbow fibulas, a golden earring, golden ring, glass vessels- vials and two ceramic vessels (Vuchkovich-Todorovich 1958, 295-296).

The stelas most probably belonged to high class decedents who held lands in the horseshoe-shaped valley, but served their professional and life course in the administrative, religious and transit center in the province of Upper Moesia, in Skupi. They originate from the period at the end of the 1st to the beginning of the 3rd century (Vuchkovich-Todorovich 1958, 290-295, Dragojevich-Josifovska 1982, 68-69, 81-82, 86, 99, 118; Petkovski 2013, 182, 197, 198, 209, 213).

The following names are mentioned:

– Decedent (soldier in the Flavian cavalry-ala) Vanno, Iulius Vanno Missicius and the dedicator – establisher Flavius Antiocus,

– Decedent (centurion veteran) Antonius and the establisher, free slave Simphorus,

– Decedent Drutie Mestulae and the dedicator Maema Dioscuridi,

– Decedent (veteran of the VII legion Claudia Pia Fidelis), Publius Caetennius Clemens and the establisher, free slave  Simphorus and heir Publius Caetennius Felicianus,

– Decedent Publius Aelius Posidonianus and the establisher Antonia Saturnina,

– Decedents (sons, praetorian soldiers Caio Valerio Pudinti veteran and Caio Iulio Celeri, the son-in-law, who was Augustales (priest of the royal cult in Skupi) Caio Valerio Maximo and the establisher mother Iulia Victorina (Vuchkovich-Todorovich 1958, 290-295, Dragojevich-Josifovska 1982, 68-69, 81-82, 86, 99, 118).

On this very spot, atKushica near the high poplars, ceramic pipes – tubules most probably belonging to an ancient water supply system were excavated while repairing and constructing a new water supply system for the village, thus this place got the name Old Spring.

 

  1. Archeological site Grmadi

is believed to be the settlement or one of the village estates belonging to some of the abovementioned persons located at a distance of around 500 meters from the double late-antique tomb. While reconnoitering this are numerous rocks and tegulae were found, as well as house foundations that were probably ripped out in the process of ploughing the fields. (Vuchkovich-Todorovich 1958, 295)

Fig. 4 Arch. loc. Grmadi

 

  1. Archeological site Smilanci,

situated around 1.2 kilometers to the south-east of the village, on the slopes of a flattened plateau and above a deep valley and an aqueous spring scattered stones and pieces of Corinth tegulae can be found. Maybe this was also the location of a village estate from the Roman period.

Fig. 5 Arch. loc. Smilanci and Bel Krst

  1. Archeological site Bel Krst (White Cross),

a gentle hill at a distance of less than one kilometer to the south-east from the center of the village. On the top of the hill, a wide ditch was dug where most likely a roughly caved stone block was set with a recipient in the middle. Nearby the stone block, there is a stone cross inscribed in Old Slavonic letters.

 Fig. 6 Arch. loc. Bel Krst

FINAL CONCLUSIONS

 

The little horseshoe-shaped valley which is the resting place of Dobri Dol village is also a meeting point for several communication routes, connecting the Skopje region to the south and vice verse. The good and fertile soil and the closeness of the forests and higher pastures have provided conditions for a secure and good life for the population inhabiting this area in different time periods.

The presence of quality drinking water gushing from the several watery springs (a few of which are completely dried out today) as well as the favorable and mila climate were a precondition for forming the first settlements ever since the early Stone Age.

This short review of the few archeological points in the village and its vicinity is merely a starting point for further, more scrutinized and comprehensive research into the archeological past of the village of Dobri Dol.

 

This text was finished on the day of † Venerable Martyr Fevronija;

Venerable Dionisiy Kosturski, 2014

By Igor Tolevski – igor.tolevski@gmail.com

A Day With Macedonian Archaeology – The period between VI and III century BC in Kumanovo, R. Macedonia

Until recently, the period of transition from the Iron Age into early Antiquityfor the region of Kumanovo was nearly unidentified. It is in this period that the influence of the achievements attained by southern civilizations– both Hellenic and Macedonian, becomes evident for the first time in this part of the Balkans.

Presently, the most explored site in the mentioned region that features a defined stratigraphy and best reflects the transition from the 7th into the 6th century is Gradishte near Pelince.  We can record the penetration of southern influences though the occurrences of matte painted earthenware and colored in lines, found in the lower reaches of the river Vardar, that nearly simultaneously occur in the necropolis near river Bregalnica, and date from the same time as the autochthonus, hand-made pottery decorated using incising tools. As a logical development, what follows is the dominance of grey ceramics from the 5th century. This site most probably existed until the end of the 5th / the beginning of the 4th century, but signs of settlements are absent up until the Roman period (2nd – 3rd century) when it was most likely used as a small guard post for overseeing the Pchinja road.

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A Mummy from Lipkovo, R. Macedonia

Something similar can be noted on the Glauchica site, near Lipkovo. The Iron Age settlement experienced southern influences through the use of pottery made on wheel, but it appears that later this settlement was abandoned and consequently there are no characteristic forms of ceramics from the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. The inhabitants of this settlement were buried in Kisela Voda, a place where owing to the content of the water passing through the caskets the bodies are naturally mummified. Unfortunately, due to political reasons only, this necropolis is not yet excavated thus its chronological frames are not determined.

Kostoperska Karpa and Gradishte in Mlado Nagorichane share a different fate. The former site used to be and still is located on the spot where the road that led from Nish to Thessaloniki met the road from Skopje to Bulgaria. The early-antique settlement there continued to thrive into the Hellenistic period, and its location contributed to the occurrence of ceramic forms that clearly reflect the commerce with the south, as well as the imitation of the imported luxury pottery vessels.

Kostoperska Karpa

Kostoperska Karpa

Gradishte in Mlado Nagorichane is a site made know upon Z. Georgiev’s survey, around 30 years ago. These have set the chronological frame of the site, that certainly lived through the Celtic invasion of 280 – 279 BC., and immediately after that life in the settlement was renewed, although in a more modest volume. The recent surveys done by V. Lilikj also support this chronology.

We can see that not all early-antique settlements were abandoned in the 4th – 3rd century BC, as was claimed thus far. Some have lost their significance in the 5th century, others continued to live on after the Celtic invasion and there are no discernable differences that would suggest Dardani raids and settlements. Consequently, we cannot easily discern the origin of the population settling this part of our country. The theories suggesting the Agrianes, Paeonians, Dardani and the Thracian-Triballi tribes have their support and claim, but they also have serious shortcomings especially because the history sources place all these tribes in different locations at different time periods. The overview of the material culture says that in different time periods, the ethnic landscape of the population would change, which has always been the border zone between the large Balkan peoples.The contemporary understanding of national identity as unique and unaltered since the ancient days, as well as its uniformity and homogeneity throughout the entire territory of the Republic of Macedonia does not coincide with the real picture obtained by archeological digs. If we combine this picture with the antique sources there is a possibility to gain a more realistic display of history, without the subjective view that is more and more present in Macedonian archaeology.

By Dejan Gjorgievski – Museum of city of Kumanovo

Paeionian coin Audoleon from Mlado Nagoricane

Paeonian Silver Coin from Mlado Nagoricane17