Early Medieval

Tintagel II – a not as wet as I expected festival of archaeology

If you don’t know about our English Heritage research and excavation project at Tintagel, have a look at my Day of Archaeology post from last year, or catch up with the work so far during the 2017 season on Twitter or Facebook.

Checking the weather forecast the day before, it looked like it was going to be a very wet visit.

I even went out and bought a new large umbrella.

The purpose of heading to Tintagel was to see progress on the research excavations, where the fantastic team from Cornwall Archaeological Unit and their volunteers have been uncovering a series of inter-linked early medieval buildings, dating from the 5-7th centuries AD. The team has been commissioned by English Heritage to try and understand more about the site at this time. It seems there was an elite settlement, fortified town and trading post there but a full set of buildings from this period has never been excavated with modern archaeological techniques before. I was keen to see how they were getting on!

Secondly, I was also taking a new colleague, Dr Nick Holder, to the site for the first time. Nick has recently joined my properties research team at English Heritage and will be taking over from me on this particular project as it goes forward. So this was a good chance to show him the site, introduce him to people and discuss the various research and visitor projects currently taking place.

And finally, it is our Festival of Archaeology week at Tintagel, and various members of staff and people involved in the project have volunteered (or been volunteered) to lead tours for our visitors as part of the week of activites. I was due to be leading two tours, one at 12noon and one at 2pm. I’d chosen to focus my tour on the headland plateau, taking people around the various ruins and buildings that tell us about the early medieval settlement on the site.

The forecast had improved dramatically overnight and on arrival in Tintagel village it was spitting with rain but not too bad. We headed straight up to see the excavations, bumping into James (excavation site manager) and Doug (visitor site manager) on the steps on the way up.

The trenches are looking absolutely fantastic. James and Brett showed us the key discoveries – both interior and exterior surfaces, a possible hearth, really well preserved stone walling and all kinds of exciting finds. We had a discussion about possible changes to our backfilling and preservation strategy, about radiocarbon dating and environmental sampling, potential floor surfaces etc. One new interesting discovery is that the walls are held together with a firm grey clay, so these weren’t just drystone wall buildings.

Photograph of the Tintagel excavations 2017

The well-preserved wall and doorway at the upper level of the excavations.

Photograph of the Tintagel excavations 2017

Here you can see that some of the walls partly slipped down into the building as it decayed. And you can see the grey clay matrix which holds the wall together.

Photograph of Tintagel excavations 2017

Overview of the excavations, with volunteers hard at work! A possible hearth lies under the black plastic in the left-hand corner and a nice paved floor is in the central trench.

Photograph of Tintagel excavations 2017

The view from the excavations takes some beating. Even on a wet and windy day like today! That’s Tintagel parish church on the mainland, where certain elite people from the settlement were buried in the 6th century AD.

My tours of the early medieval settlement went really well – about 15 people for the first one and 6 for the second (it was pouring with rain by then!) but all interested people with good questions. Managed to make the kids make faces and say ‘eurgh’ at the mention of fish custard in the amphorae! Luckily I had a radio mic so not all my words were blown away in the wind.

The weather worsened in the afternoon so it was a bit of a battle against the wind and rain as I showed my new colleague around Tintagel properly, discussing various future projects, publishing my research on the site and decision-making behind the interpretation project we delivered last year. Then we returned to the excavations to see some of the key finds. Some of the volunteers were asking why I wasn’t in the trench with them – I wish!

On the way back up to the village we bumped into Neil Burridge, master metalworker, who had been doing silver smithing up in the mainland courtyard all week for our visitors as part of the Festival of Archaeology. He’d had a fantastic week so I was really pleased to have asked him along to help out. Giving us a lift back up in his van, we talked about the lead and silver (galena) mine under the island and the fact that the excavations have turned up some crucible fragments this week – so metalworking was certainly happening at Tintagel in the early medieval period, as well as in 2017!

After a long drive home with no voice left and tired legs after all those steps, I’ll be glad to have a hot bath! Although I’ll be handing over responsibility for the Tintagel research project to Nick, I’ll certainly be keeping up with the key discoveries and analysis over the next few years – there will be lots more to say about this magical site.


As this is the last ever Day of Archaeology (sob!) I just wanted to say a huge THANK YOU to the volunteer team who dreamt up this wonderful idea and give up their own days of archaeology to edit, monitor and publish posts. May we all have many more days of archaeology in the future.




Archaeology at Tintagel… on the edge of a cliff!

[I begin with two things – a confession and an apology. Firstly, the day I’ve chosen to describe in my Day of Archaeology isn’t actually the 29 July – as that day I was happily walking the south-west coast path and sitting on a beach in Cornwall. So I’ll be describing my day on Tuesday 26 July instead. Secondly, apologies as it’s being posted so late – the holiday is the reason for that too!]

Tuesday wasn’t a typical day in my role as Senior Properties Historian at English Heritage, but as I struggle to describe a typical day that’s nothing unusual. The day was spent at Tintagel Castle in Cornwall, where there are currently excavations being carried out by Cornwall Archaeology Unit, on our behalf. I drove down in the morning to meet a couple of TV crews – one from BBC Spotlight and another from the ITV local news, who had both been invited to cover the story of the excavations. After re-reading our press release and having a quick chat with our PR manager, I gave a couple of interviews about why we were carrying out the project, and took the crews up to the excavations to meet the archaeologists and show them the site.

Looking across to Tintagel Castle headland from the mainland.

Looking across to Tintagel Castle headland from the mainland.

I’ve been involved with Tintagel Castle for a couple of years, working on a complete overhaul of the interpretation and visitor information on site, alongisde various improvements to the cafe, shop and ticket points. We installed a new permanent exhibition in the visitor centre in 2015, and added a range of interpretation panels and artistic installations to the site at Easter 2016. My role was to carry out the historical and archaeological research, write the text, commission the reconstructions and models, and also to work alongside artists and interpretation colleagues to deliver the rest of the project.

The new exhibition at Tintagel installed in 2015.

The new exhibition at Tintagel installed in 2015.

So, what are we doing now at Tintagel? This is the first year of a five year research project which aims to find out more about the early medieval (post-Roman) settlement on the site. Occupied between the 5th and 7th centuries AD, this extraordinary defended site had somewhere in the region of 100 buildings scattered across the headland. It was linked to a trading network connecting it to the Mediterranean world – more imported amphora and fine tablewares, as well as fine glasswares, have been found at Tintagel than anywhere else in western Europe. We assume that this was an elite, possibly royal settlement, occupied perhaps by the rulers of the kingdom of Dumnonia. But there is much that we don’t understand – when exactly was the site occupied? What sort of activities were being carried out on site? Was it a seasonal settlement? What did the buildings look like? Were they stores, workshops or houses? Although excavations took place at Tintagel in the 1930s by C. A. Raleigh Radford, this was largely clearance work to display the building remains to the public and many of the records were lost when Radford’s Exeter house was bombed in the Second World War. A small amount of work was carried out in the 1990s by Glasgow University but it was restricted to the area already disturbed by Radford.

Site C, a range of buildings excavated by Radford in the 1930s and again by Glasgow University in the 1990s.

Site C, a range of buildings excavated by Radford in the 1930s and again by Glasgow University in the 1990s.

Cornwall Archaeology Unit (CAU) have been commissioned to carry out this research work which involves two seasons of excavations, plus post-ex analysis and publication following. This year’s archaeological work is an evaluation of two key areas of the site to establish the nature of the post-Roman remains and to identify one of the two areas for more in-depth archaeological work next year. The two areas were chosen as they were likely to preserve good archaeological stratigraphy and were undisturbed by medieval activity or later archaeological work. The first area is on the southern terrace where a small trench was opened as part of the Extreme Archaeology series in about 2003 – remember that? It had some dramatic footage of Alice Roberts dangling off a rope but actually the terrace is very accessible and not that scary to work on! The second area is on the eastern terraces, not far from the visitor steps up to the chapel area of the headland.

Whilst the TV crews were filming the archaeology and interviewing colleagues, I had a chance to look at the trenches for the first time. As I write the excavations are still ongoing, but early results look very interesting, with walls and areas of paving, and lots of finds including amphora fragments and pieces of glass.

Staff and volunteers from CAU hard at work in one of the southern terrace trenches.

Staff and volunteers from CAU hard at work in one of the southern terrace trenches.

Once the media interviews were over, I went up to the mainland courtyard to check on the set up for my talk to visitors. We have been hosting events for our visitors all week to tie into the excavations – regular talks from the site team in the morning and then a programme of talks from different specialists in the afternoon, as well as hands-on activities for children. Various staff and volunteers from CAU have also been on hand to talk to visitors about the archaeology at the trench edge. Of course, this is one of the busiest times of year being the summer holidays, so it takes quite a bit of time to get up and down the steps to the headland due to the sheer numbers of people – this narrow and steep route is the only way on and off the castle, at least for the time being!

My talk is entitled ‘Tintagel: where history meets legend’ which is also the title of the exhibition. I’m trying to explain to visitors how history and legend at Tintagel are completely intertwined – you can’t understand one without the other. My audience is typical for Tintagel visitors at this time of year – lots of families, children and a few attentive dogs. I try to explain how the site has became attached to the tradition of King Arthur and also introduce them to the other key legend at the site – the love story of Tristan and Iseult, and weave in the history of the site too. They all listen wonderfully and then I get lots of questions about the castle, the archaeology project and King Arthur. Various people come up afterwards to ask more questions about the site, including one teenager who wanted advice on becoming an archaeologist.

After a late lunch, I head back up to the castle to see how the panels and installations were being received by visitors – it is lovely to stand near a panel that you have written and hear people read it out to their children and see them engage with the sculptures and reconstructions.

An interpretation panel at Tintagel Castle

Visitors reading one of our new interpretation panels near the Great Hall. This one has the remains of a medieval feast in bronze on the top.

I also wanted to take some more photographs of the archaeology in action and speak to the volunteers. We had been planning to have lots of social media coverage but unfortunately broadband has been down at Tintagel for several days and there is no mobile signal, making it difficult to upload posts! Luckily one of the volunteers is a dab hand with photogrammetry and has made some brilliant 3D models of the trenches. He is also happily filming everyone with a handheld camcorder for the BBC’s Digging for Britain.

Unexpectedly I have a spare morning before my second talk to visitors tomorrow afternoon, and my offer to help in the trenches is seized upon by the team – luckily I have packed my trowel. It’s not often I get to actually do real archaeology – this will be a first in 11 years in the job!

Planning the trench - what a view!

Planning the second trench on the southern terrace – what a view!


Typical day in our Museum


Today is Day of Archaeology so let’s sail through this day on our ship with Olaf 🙂

Sculptures from Elblag’s Biennial looks like huge dragons, and are located all around Elbląg. You can walk around city and watch different monument. On my way to work I see just few of them. Art installations gives my home town artistic look.

Church path with beautiful arcs makes everyone feel really medieval. I think It is the most charming place.

At the Museum I usually document artefacts. Measuring, taking pictures, preparations for exhibitions… It takes a lot of time, but work with such beautiful things makes you feel special.

but sometimes…. Olaf is messing with our work… (this picture almost got published in our book) 🙂

Visitors can have guided tours with Museum staff. Olaf and archaeologists talk about different sites and exhibitions in Museum. You can see exhibitions about History of the Goths, The Amber -Truso-Emporium and Elbląg – a recovered testimony of the past.

Museum lessons held in reconstruction of long house on Museum yard are very interesting.

Well… not that interesting for Olaf, who has huge problems with drawing… 😀


Children could play medieval games, learn history and get little bit dirty while making clay pottery. When the weather is nice everyone can see how medieval women made food for their families (and how it tasted).

3. Crickley Hill: an outline of post-excavation analysis

I dug at Crickley Hill in 1993, but began research on the Crickley Hill archive in 1997, as part of my MA in Archaeological Research at the University of Nottingham. My dissertation would focus upon the late- to post-Roman activity on the site, and provide a platform from which I could continue research in order to publish Volume 6 in the series of site reports. This report will cover the late pre-Roman Iron Age (‘Period 3c’), Roman, and Early Medieval (‘Period 4’: also called the ‘Early Middle Ages‘, or ‘Dark Ages‘) phases of occupation and ritual within the Early Iron Age hill fort. In this post, I’m going to provide a brief outline of work on the Crickley Hill archive


2. Getting started in Archaeology: volunteering and studying as a part-time mature student

Getting started in archaeology: volunteering and studying as a part-time mature student

I’m going to explain how and why I came into archaeology (which will discuss volunteering and studying as a part-time mature student), and why I went into the field of early medieval archaeology. I hope this will show the positive effects of history and archaeology in schools, the role of museums in stimulating interest, and the significance of public access to archaeology. It will also hopefully provide some insight into the value of education, and the challenges of studying archaeology as a mature student.


Introduction to Day of Archaeology in Elbląg :)

We couldn’t wait till tomorrow so we decided to start earlier. 🙂

Truso Team with cooperation of Enthusiasts of Truso Association and Archaeological and Historical Museum in Elbląg has the honour to introduce to you ……


Our brave and sweet and handsome Viking Ghost – OLAF! 🙂


Truso was known only from Wulfstan’s account, who described his way from Danish Haede (Hedeby) to Truso. In 1981 Truso was discovered by Marek F. Jagodziński.


He used to live in Truso – early medieval Vikings’ settlement located in the Slavic-Estian borderland, but he decided to move to our Museum.





Now he sleeps in the reconstruction of Viking hut, and he hopes to find a beautiful ghost girlfriend, because he is really lonely  (oh and he needs new cloak).



Tomorrow we will sail with him through rough waves of Day of Archaeology. I hope that You will like my job as I love it.



Introduction to a day of ‘post-ex’, research and education

I’m taking part in the Day of Archaeology to demonstrate that there’s more to archaeology than digging. I’m current involved in archaeological  research, although I also teach archaeology (primarily within the Adult Education sector, but I have taught workshops in schools). At present, I am preparing to teach a workshop on Derbyshire in the Roman period and early Middle Ages, writing up research I undertook whilst at the University of Sheffield, and completing post-excavation analysis on the late pre-Roman Iron Age (LPRIA), Roman, and early medieval activity at Crickley Hill, Gloucestershire, in order to write volume 6 in the series of site reports in this series. For more information on this work, I’ve started a website http://crickleyhillad.community.officelive.com/, but I’ve provided a summary of the site here.