Richard Mikulski Site: College Site, Sidon, Lebanon

I studied archaeology at the Institute of Archaeology (UCL) where apart from feeling like Nemo in a sea of students, I also had the opportunity to attend a course module on human remains and ancient disease as part of my undergraduate degree. After a brief(-ish) hiatus helping to conserve turtles in the Caribbean, I went on to study for an MSc in Forensic Anthropology at the University of Bradford. Following the completion of my dissertation, I helped out re-boxing some of the human remains collections and it was at this point one of my tutors asked me if I’d be interested in joining an excavation in Lebanon.

Almost 15 years later, I am still heavily involved here at Sidon, having long since decided it’s highly unlikely I will get to dig another site like it. I have also been lucky enough here to excavate human remains (a group of crusaders from two mass grave deposits) which are currently the focus of my own PhD research at Bournemouth University, (thanks again to my old tutor, now supervisor, Professor Holger Schutkowski), but that’s a story for another day… ?

Here in Sidon, my typical day starts at 4:55am with the usual panic that I am last to get up.

A typical breakfast consists of the following:

  • one flatbread neatly torn into three parts upon each of which I spread the following delicacies – Picon (the local equivalent of Dairy Lea/La vache qui rie e. processed cheese), raspberry jam and Nutella (the latter assuming Hassan has not finished it off…)
  • one small cup of industrial strength Arabic coffee as kindly made each morning by our lovely conservator Ms P.

Breakfast (Image: R. Mikulski)

Khaled, our driver picks us up in his minibus at 5:30 and we’re off with a clatter of clean cooking pots and Tupperware to Sidon proper where the excavation site is located right on the edge of the old town.

I’m lucky enough that where I am currently digging is beneath the superstructure of the new museum (currently under construction over part of the site). Not only does this keep me out of the baking sun most of the day, but it also provides me with the rather weak excuse that it is too dark to excavate the delicate remains of the burial we are uncovering at present for another hour or so. Consequently, I can get on with some paperwork and catch up with the recording of the burial archaeology. It also allows me to partake of Fadia’s (one of Claude, our director’s right-hand ladies) generosity and accept a fortuitous extra cup of coffee – even stronger than the first!


College Site, Sidon in 2011 (Image: S. Randall).


With new museum currently under construction. (Image: R. Mikulski)

I can generally start down on site just before 7am. This year I’m experimenting with some time-lapse video footage of one of the burials, which involves lugging the giant tripod down along with all my tools, finds bags, camera, notebook and the ever-essential large bottle of water.

My work on site invariably involves me sitting or lying down for long periods of time. Often as not, I’m to be found in one or other dubious positions, precariously balanced over one of a variety of different types of bronze age burial.

Hi Mum! Image: N. Maraanen

Up until recently, the focus of the research excavations has been mainly on the Bronze Age deposits and the Middle Bronze Age cemetery, which began about 2000 BC, its use continuing until approximately 1400 BC.

While the initial use of the cemetery began with some rather fancy, high status burials (single individuals, usually males with lots of grave goods such as bronze axes and spearheads and plenty of animal remains presumably to keep them going in the afterlife…), it’s clear that the cemetery soon came to include everyone from Bronze Age Sidon and burial practices became more variable, ranging from high status stone-lined ‘tombs’ to mudbrick ‘cists’ to the very neat jar burials usually accommodating children.

It’s also clear that space gradually became a premium and one of the main problems we encounter is trying to glean as much information from the truncated burials often missing parts or sections of the individuals’ bodies because of later activity cutting into earlier deposits. Things are made even more difficult as people appear to have revisited the burials, sometimes clearing the remains of previous burials but arranging them in neat stacks

This photo of a section shows an exposed child’s burial located directly above a jar burial, most likely containing another subadult. You can clearly see how the burial of the large jar involved digging a hole into the orange sand layer.

Section showing sand layer and jar burial. Image: R. Mikulski

The sand layer is a very useful part of what we call the stratigraphy of the site. It sits directly on top of the Early Bronze Age deposits, effectively sealing them and provides us with a horizon marking the start of the Middle Bronze Age, so anything that cuts into the sand must be later than c.2000 BC.

Unfortunately, it is rare that the skeletal remains survive well after exposure and lifting here in the Near East. The great age of the remains (at least 3,500 years in most cases) along with the ground conditions and long-term continuous urban activity on site, often result in a situation where the bones are softer than the soil around them and both dry out very rapidly in the extreme heat of the summer here. The sun especially has a detrimental effect on the remains almost as soon as they are exposed, with bones literally crumbling at the slightest touch. In the past, I have had to make do with some comedy parasols to protect the bones and allow us to get a good photograph.

“But I really need two parasols…” (Image: R. Mikulski)

However, this year patience has already been rewarded with a couple of burials which have turned out very well.

Nina Maraanen Site: College Site, Sidon, Lebanon

The view from the roof

Like Richard, my speciality is skeletal human remains. I have a degree in Archaeology from the University of Helsinki as well as a degree in Human osteology and palaeopathology from the University of Bradford, UK (in other words, I like looking at bones on and off the field). Currently, I am (also) located at the University of Bournemouth, working on my PhD that will include a number of sites from both Egypt and the Levantine area.

Unlike Richard, however, this is my very first dig at Sidon (my very first dig in Lebanon, to tell you the truth). My previous stints in the area have been situated in different parts of Egypt, though recently I have been excavating in Finland, where the summer excavation season does not necessarily mean the weather is any clearer, drier or warmer. When I was presented with an opportunity to retire my wellies (for now at least) and work in Sidon, I practically had my suit cases packed the next day.

Friday morning begins like any other morning, the alarm blaring off first at 4.50, then 4.55 and finally at 5.00 – I am most definitely not a morning person but luckily, years of forced early wake-ups have caused most tasks to become automatic, and the first conscious decision takes place only after Fadia has made her coffee round of the morning.

Afterwards, I follow Fadia down to Sandikli, where all the pottery from the site gets processed (though some of the burials are stored in the office, some are kept in separate storage). The human remains have already received a preliminary assessment, but my job is to confirm field assessments (such as age estimations) and take measurements wherever I can. This will give us a fuller understanding of the people who used to live and work at Sidon and how Sidon was connected to other places not only in Lebanon but further afield.

After marvelling about the importance of my work I am feeling quite hungry but it seems rejoicing one’s excellence burns more calories than one is able to consume in the morning, and the clock is stuck at 9.00am. So I hunker down for another hour before bouncing off to breakfast to hear how the others are faring for the day. Usually Richard will provide me with a juicy detail of whatever burial-related feature they have found and I can once again lull myself into thinking how much I love my work.

Office work in Sidon

After breakfast, the day always seems to speed up and before I know it, it is lunch time and soon after that we are packing our equipment and heading back to the house to unpack and unwind. Every evening, I dump my pictures of the day to an external hard drive (while keeping the originals as well). Mostly, it is images upon images of laid out skeletons or other exciting bits I’ve come across, but I also try and include work photos as well – of the team, the workmen, the scenery. Today, I had extra fun taking my work photos as I wore my Indiana Jones t-shirt in honour of the Day of Archaeology event. Indiana’s field work may have had more gun fights but he was still a big geek for Archaeology – just like the rest of us!


Nina at Sidon

19 years of excavation in Sidon, Lebanon.

For the past 19 years and despite political uncertainties excavations have been undertaken in one of the most famous Phoenician harbours: Sidon, mentioned 38 times in the Old Testament and in Greek writings. The excavation, which is located right in the heart of modern Sidon, is the second urban excavation to take place in the Lebanon after Beirut. It is located on land expropriated for the specific purpose of research. What this actually means in practical terms is that, unlike Beirut, this is a project with no time limit and no pressure from developers. The site is called College site, named after two boy’s schools which had occupied this particular location but which were later demolished around 1967. The most salient characteristic of the Sidon excavation was the revelation that the site provides an exceptional continuity in occupation. Once settled in their bedrock-based round houses at the end of the Chalcolithic Period, the Sidonians never left this location. It was to remain occupied almost continuously throughout the 3rd , the 2nd and well into the 1st Millennium BC streaming, uninterrupted, into the Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Arab and Crusader periods,, and whereby all these Sidonians at one time or another, saw fit to take up residence.

We could begin by trying to understand why the Sidonians never left College site. Upon investigation, we determined that its location close to a safe and naturally protected harbour meant that they were able to communicate with the Aegean, Egypt, Cyprus and Anatolia. This is confirmed by the type, number and date of the artefacts uncovered on site. Their main means of transport abroad, as we all know, was by boat. An early second Millennium handle found in Sidon features a rare example of a masted sea-going vessel.

Exotic and utilitarian goods were traded alongside raw materials. Thus from Sidon’s extraordinary ‘College site’ does the story of a city unfold, journeying from its bedrock foundations at the very end of the 4th Millennium BC to the 21st century AD, revealing to the world along the way its warrior graves, ritual feasting, early monumental building and extensive foreign trade connections. One of the most exciting experiences is to observe the extent to which the city received, absorbed, and then reinterpreted influences and thereby transmitting a distinctive and unique picture of a very important commercial and cultural hub in the ancient Mediterranean.

The aspirations at the end of this project are that this excavation will leave a legacy to the people of Lebanon. Not only are we hoping to broaden the history of the city of Sidon to an unprecedented degree but we also hope people will be able to visit the site and the new museum that will house all the uncovered artefacts where they can see for themselves what has been achieved.

For more details, follow us on Sidon Excavation Facebook  ; ExcavationSidon Twitter


SMALL FINDS CONSERVATOR IN SIDON, LEBANON (2) Bronze corrosion. If it’s fluffy, slimy or smelly, it’s bad!

Part of the reason I enjoy coming to work in Sidon is that I did my early training in the old British Museum Department of Western Asiatic Antiquities so many of the finds here are familiar types. Also, I am totally unfazed by massive corrosion. Sidon is a seaport and the soil is both damp and full of salts. Our metals tend to be more mineral samples, really.

Owl coin from Sidon

Owl coin from Sidon

All conservators have the usual chemical remedy they go to for active bronze corrosion: benzotriazole. It was originally used in industry to treat exterior bronze or copper architectural features like metal rooves but it was soon found to be useful in treating corroded antiquities. https://www.iiconservation.org/node/258 (A preliminary note on the use of benzotriazole for stabilizing bronze objects. Authors: Madsen, H. Brinch; Source: Studies in conservation, Volume 12, Number 4, p.163-167 (1967))

It pretty well solves 99.9% of bronze problems but, occasionally, you come up against an object and know that good old BTA just isn’t going to work. One such item was a coin I cleaned here in 2014. The corrosion was thick with soil deposits bonded into the corrosion with silicates. I managed to get the coin reasonably legible but I knew it had thick waxy deposits of cuprous chloride running under the surface detail. I could not remove the chloride manually without destroying the remaining detail. All I could do was immerse the coin in benzotriazole solution for some days and then give it a protective coat of acrylic. This year I thought I would revisit the coin and check how it was doing. Sometimes it is no fun to be proved right. The poor little coin of Athens was covered in the classic fluffy emerald green crystals of active bronze disease. However, it was only when I began to remove the crystal eruptions that I realised that they had burst through a thin layer of silver foil, as well as the overlying copper corrosion. The coin was a contemporary ancient fake silver coin. A copper alloy coin had been covered in two discs of silver foil like a chocolate coin, the edges burnished round. Our coin expert will have to tweak his coin catalogue a little!

And it’s back in the benzotriazole again for the Athenian coin and this time it will get the additional treatment of an application of black silver oxide, an even older method I was taught in the old Department of WAA. The result is not as subtle as BTA as there will be a slight change of colour and texture as the silver bonds with the chloride ions to form a stable “scab” of inert silver chloride, sealing off the potentially active cuprous chloride (….or that is how they taught the chemistry to me in old WAA)

Yesterday on site the archaeologists had been baffled by uncovering dozens of hard white points. Next thing I know, an enormous antler has arrived in my workshop. Another problem I can throw so old trusted chemicals at!



My name is Pippa Pearce and though I have been earning my living as an antiquities conservator all my life, I still take working holidays to have the opportunity to treat items that would not normally come my way. Our day starts with coffee, boiled up in a pan at 5am.

Brewing Coffee

Brewing Coffee

I have been told I have to let the coffee froth up and remove it from the heat three times, but it is hard to do that early without making a mess of the stove. Our vehicle arrives to take us to site at 5.30 am. The finds are stored and processed in a building next to the site and I have a workroom on the second floor. I bring lamps with rechargeable batteries so that I can use the microscope, even when the power is off.

The microscope at Sidon

The piece of paper clipped up is a list of all the finds that have been issued to me for conservation and it is part of the paper trail that tracks the whereabouts of all the finds in the building. Of course, it also doubles as my ‘To Do’ list.

Conservation list

Digging in the Lebanon

My name is Pippa Pearce and I am a British Museum conservator on a dig in the Lebanon run jointly by the BM and Lebanese archaeologists. I have been taking pictures all day to record Archaeology day here but my internet connection is dodgy. I will try and upload them when I can.

The site is Sidon in modern day Saida. The dig director is Claude Doumet Serhal and the on site representative from the British Museum is Sarah Collins. The dig has funding from a number of interested institutions & individuals, many of them based in the Lebanon.

Digging on the Web

On this “Day of Archaeology”, I’m busy preparing to head off to the field (in sunny Tuscany (!!)), square away some data, and finish work on some tech consulting.  That last bit is a clue that I’m not really a “normal archaeologist”. Actually, I’ve never met an archaeologist that I’d consider normal –  which is what attracted me to this field in first place. But even among archaeologists, I’m something of an odd-ball.

I have a background in Near Eastern archaeology, and did my dissertation research looking at interactions between Egypt and the Levant (modern Israel, Palestine, Lebanon) in the Early Bronze Age. But for various reasons, both personal and professional, I shifted gears toward the digital side of archaeology, co-founded a nonprofit with my wife (and boss!), and for the past 10 years, I’ve loved almost every minute of my work day. Except writing grant proposals (but there are some necessary evils in all work).

My research and professional interests focus on archaeological data, and much less on digging and field work for myself. This focus means I have a very different professional network, set of collaborators, and work life. Though I work closely with other archaeological professionals, I’m also heavily engaged with folks well outside the discipline, including Web and information scientists, digital librarians and archivists, technology companies, “digital humanists”, and researchers in scholarly communications.

I keep such odd company because I’m really interested in improving the way archaeologists communicate and share their research. Archaeology is intensely multidisciplinary and collaborative. It involves inputs from all sorts of different sciences, and many archaeologists work together in large teams. Sharing the results of all this research needs to reflect the collaborative nature of the field, and it needs to speak with people in other disciplines and walks of life. That’s why I’m so interested in making it archaeological data more open, easier to share, and easier to reuse.

My primary project is Open Context. It’s a system for publishing archaeological data, openly, on the Web, for all to browse and reuse. On this “Day of Archaeology”, I’m busy indexing tens of thousands of detailed records of archaeological contexts, objects, bones, and other material from Kenan Tepe, a major excavation in Turkey led by Bradley Parker. This collection represents the monumental effort of almost 10 years of field work. You can browse around its photo archives and see many thousands of pictures, mainly of dirt. Though it is free to access and use, the data are priceless. Excavation is a destructive process, and the documentation describing such excavations will be the only record available to revisit and re-analyze excavation results. That’s why comprehensive publishing with platforms like Open Context, as well as archiving with digital repositories like tDAR, the ADS, or the CDL is so important.

As this blog post should make clear, I love working with the Web. And what I like most about it is that I work with a growing and vibrant community of like minded people who want to see more from archaeology than costly journal articles read by a narrow few. The developers of ARK, Portable Antiquities, all the collaborators of Pelagios, and the bottom-up group linking archaeological data, are all hugely talented and make my work life rewarding and fun. All this makes archaeology (for me) as much about community and the future as it is about the past.

Databases and Materials

Back from library, 9 journals in hand. Spent far too much time trying to figure out how to link my Mac to the photocopier so that I can send scans from it back to myself. More and more I find that I do not like paper copies of articles. I much prefer digital versions that I can then edit using PDFExpert on my iPad. This allows me to export all my notes and highlights separately (with page numbers attached), and paste it them into Endnote.

More tedious emails to deal with, and must photocopy and submit those PhD forms!

Computers now all updated, so that this weekend and next week I can really get cracking finalising the data in my database. Then I can start playing with the numbers, looking for patterns and correlations. If I were better with spreadsheets, this would be more fun—as it stands I need to find someone who IS good at it to help. The goal is data-driven research, rather than strictly being hypothesis-driven. I don’t want to miss any possibly important patterns by focussing on pre-conceptions… more can be found on my usual blog ancientegyptiancobras.blogspot.co.uk/. The next few weeks will be really hectic—I have an apprentice to help map the findspots (there over 700 fragments to deal with) and input the data on the replicas we made.

grins, here is some artwork I made for a ‘research as art’ competition held here at Swansea University. It didn’t win, but I think it encapsulates what I am working on …

Demon Blasters and Fiery Goddesses: Ancient Egytian Clay Cobra figurines 

Demon Blasters and Fiery Goddesses: Ancient EgypPan Clay Cobra figurines

“Who am I? Broken now in pieces, a fragment of ancient Egyptian religion, ritual and magic.
Who shaped my serpent form from soft clay found at the banks of the Nile, so long ago? I was passed through and transformed by the element of fire…
I spit fire and flame, illuminating the darkness, a conflagration invoked against demons that trouble the night. Imbued with the power of the fiery goddess, the Egyptians worshipped me, in the Delta, across the Mediterranean Coast from Libya to Lebanon, they chose me to take on their travels. Today you wonder: Who made me? Who prayed to me? Whose fears did I soothe? How many demons did I destroy? How many lives did I touch? Who broke me? And why …”
These figurines provide clues to how the Ancient Egyptians coped with the vicissitudes of daily life, in many ways not so very different from ours.


Now, off to another university meeting—this one on e-learning.

A day of archaeology: a PhD student’s perspective

I don’t know if I have a typical day as an archaeologist. I am not sure if there is any such thing in the world of archaeology! I am a PhD student, working on the phytolith analysis of several Early Bronze Age sites in the Near East (Lebanon, Turkey and Iraq). I am also the mother of an almost two year old, and I do some freelance work (editing and phytolith analysis) to earn a little extra money.

So, a ‘typical day’ means first getting my daughter ready so that my mum can pick her up and take her out for the day. (Thank God for mothers!) Then I have a few precious hours to research, analyse, write, procrastinate, clean the flat, etc etc. Right now, I am working on a report for a pilot phytolith study for a Bronze Age site in Sardinia. We weren’t sure if there would be any phytoliths preserved in the sediments, so we decided to start with five samples. Fortunately, there are a lot of phytoliths, both single cells and mulitcells, which should give some good palaeoecological information on the site. I have counted the phytoliths on the five slides, so today I will be analysing the results to see if there are any trends between the phytolith morphotypes and contexts. After compiling some statistics and pretty graphs, I will write up a short report to send to the director of the site. Hopefully, this will encourage her to send me the rest of the samples.

Then it’s quality time with my daughter, followed by dinner and bedtime (for her!). The quiet hours that follow will be dedicated to my PhD — my nose will be buried in some article or other, or I will be looking down my microscope to study more pretty bits of silica.